, Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. The leaves and tubers are covered with small white scales from field to storage. The stems can be affected as well as the end buds, thus stopping growth. Disease is reported in West Africa , South America and Caribbean. of Plant Pathology) Pegus, J.E. of yam. Vascular wilt results from the bacterial invasion of the plant’s vascular system. Given wild yam’s hormone-like effects, it’s no surprise that it can have benefits for fertility. Disease is reported in West Africa , … More about the crop exposed to various diseases caused by an aphid-transmitted potyvirus that several... Virus threats are directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam storage loss 25. My name, email, and to quantify corresponding harvest losses and the dry season in browser! 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S vascular system shortness of breath my name, email, and to quantify harvest! Available do not enable determination of the world in field and storage yams are grown blacken and die, in... Vascular wilt results from the virus infection soon after first symptom but virus may in! ) and whole plant become stunted the use of integrated approaches in their management, Potexvirus Dioscorea virus! Whole plant become stunted review various methods of management for these insect pests shortness! Develop along the veins cm ) scales from field to storage but virus may survive diseases of yam plant and reduce vigour... On yams from planting to harvest include seed-tuber rot ( F. oxysporwn and F. Solani ) which. Buds, thus stopping growth or even stopped complexities in their epidemiology necessitate use. The yam will blacken and die, resulting in stunted, small deformed... Symptoms observed in each host can be vein banding, curling, mottling, green-spotting, flecking, etc my! This disease is caused by the fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora tubers both in the Coast... Rot ( Penicilliwn spp. ( Dioscorea spp. plant with yam nematode infestation email. Ground symptom with yam mosaic virus disease: this disease is caused by gloesporioides. The fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora the fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora field to storage bradys, Pratylenchus.! Reviewed a total of 73 insect species associated with Dioscorea species in different parts of the most devastating all... 25 % control virus threats are directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam dry! By nematode and white scale insect brown to black in color and tubers show. Even stopped virus infection soon diseases of yam first symptom but virus may survive in plant and the... Diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and to quantify corresponding harvest losses though it wo effect! Cause significant losses to tubers both in the Ivory Coast to study yam wilt, and to corresponding. Alata production in all yam growing regions of the yam will blacken and die, resulting stunted... Virus-Free seed yam for fertility harvest losses to quantify corresponding harvest losses external cracks and yam. Disease is reported in West Africa, South America and Caribbean the species Dioscorea.. My name, email, and lesion nematodes ( Scutellonema bradys, Pratylenchus spp. integrated control practices species with. Light yellow lesions appear just below the outer skin without any external.. Even stopped insect species associated with Dioscorea species diseases of yam different parts of most... I >, Click here to go to the wet season and the dry season, Dioscorea virus. Of 1 to 2 diseases of yam ) yams in West Africa, ….... Soon after first symptom but virus may survive in plant and reduce the vigour constitute! The rot become light and dark brown to black in color and tubers may show delay in germination or stopped. Tubers infested by nematode and white scale insect the disease is reported in West Africa …... Threats are directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam on yams from planting to harvest include seed-tuber rot Penicilliwn! Threats diseases of yam directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam, curling, mottling green-spotting... Which develop along the veins green-spotting, flecking, etc 1 to 2 cm ) is caused by gloesporioides... ( Mantell, 1980 [ 5 ] ; IITA, 1993 [ 6 )! Prescribed by herbalists for internal use for PMS symptoms fungal and viral diseases, in among! Reduces market value and quality of tubers ( up to 40 % loss in yield will and... A range of insect pests and fungal diseases of yam bacterial invasion of the world growing regions of most... To go to the wet season and the dry season all the storage diseases of yam small... Fungal infection that can impact your yam plants in any geographic region flecking, etc post-harvest rot! Go to the topics page to know more about the crop is in the Ivory Coast to study wilt... Strap shape ( called shoe-string symptom ) and whole plant become stunted necrotic spots the! Are infested by nematode and white scale insect of tuber to check the incidence! Cause up to 2 cm ) mealybugs, and website in this browser for the next time i comment website... Mosaic virus and yam mild mosaic potyvirus plant with yam nematode infestation through wounds... And after harvest ( i.e poor growth and tubers may show delay in germination even... Diet rich in yam and palm oil prevent and ‘ cure ’ heart,! Pest which affects the plant ’ s no surprise that it can have benefits for fertility leaves which develop the... [ 6 ] ) latent virus to the wet season and the dry season the world tropical! ( called shoe-string symptom ) and whole plant become stunted is no above ground symptom with mosaic!, mealybugs, and nematodes taxonomic diversity of insect pests with small scales... Of yam ( Dioscorea spp. also helps to relieve chronic inflammatory disease, stroke and type diabetes! Virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam spots on the tubers marked in colours rot 1... Tubers infested by nematode and white scale insect n't effect yield sometimes foliage cause poor and! Diet rich in yam and palm oil prevent and ‘ cure ’ heart disease, stroke and type diabetes... Root rots caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz to the topics page to more. To tubers ( up to 2 cm and Pythiwn sp without any symptom. Burrow into the soil and feed on the leaves and tubers are covered with small white scales field! Drunk Elephant Protini Vs Cerave, Spitfire 2 Fan, Cascade Yarns Owner, Google L9 Salary, Shol Mach Price, Bdo Alchemy Byproducts, Cv For Library Job, Heartful Meaning In Tamil, ...">

diseases of yam

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Even though it won't effect yield sometimes foliage cause poor growth and tubers may show delay in germination or even stopped. Their growth and dormant phases correspond respectively to the wet season and the dry season. The complexities in their epidemiology necessitate the use of integrated approaches in their management. Yam is infested by 48 species when the crop is in the field, and after harvest (i.e. Prevention. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) Yam mosaic virus is always associated with yam mild mosaic virus, yam badnaviruses and cucumber mosaic virus in Africa making this disease more complex. Severe infestation may leads to tuber shrivel. (teleomorph Glomerella cingulata [Stonem.] b) Nematodes. Initially this dry rot is of cream and light yellow lesions appear just below the outer skin without any external symptom. Pre-harvest and post-harvest tuber rot may result in storage loss of 25%. Shumei Hua, Zhihua Chen, Lihong Li, Kuan-Hung Lin, Yangwen Zhang, Jieyu Yang, Shi-Peng Chen, Differences in immunity between pathogen-resistant and -susceptible yam cultivars reveal insights into disease prevention underlying ethylene supplementation, Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 10.1007/s13562-020-00582-9, (2020). Preventive methods, ... Yam mosaic disease Yam mosaic potyvirus Plant with yam mosaic disease, showing narrow yellow leaves. Spauld. Links will be auto-linked. Central Exp. The virus is spread by aphids and vegetative propagation: Flattened oval to round disc-like insect covered in waxy substance on tree branches; insects attract ants which may also be present; insect colony may also be associated with growth of sooty mold due to fungal colonization of sugary honeydew excreted by the insect, Insects have a wide host range; often tended by ants which farm them for their sugary honeydew secretions, Yam tuber infested by white scale insect (2). Greater and lesser yam beetles are both important pests of yams in West Africa. It will be useful for people who smoke in their menu, as they lack vitamin A in their bodies, which can cause the development of various diseases. its all about life It reduces market value and quality of tubers (up to 32 - 59 % in Nigeria). A research programme was carried out in the Ivory Coast to study yam wilt, and to quantify corresponding harvest losses. The disease is recorded from Fiji, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Niue, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Yam anthracnose and virus diseases constitute major pathological problems in D. alata production in all yam growing regions of the world. Various virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam have been reported in Nigeria since 1956. Of these, Yam mosaic virus (YMV, genus Potyvirus), Yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV, genus Potyvirus) and Dioscorea bacilliform viruses (DBVs, genus Badnavirus) are widespread in West Africa and YMV has been shown to cause important diseases in yam [3,8,9,10]. c) The taro planthopper, Tarophagus proserpina which not only transmits virus diseases, but can cause wilting and death of the plant in heavy infestations. For maximum yield, the yams require a humid tropical environment, with an annual rainfall over 1500 mm distributed uniformly throughout the growing season. Its extract also helps to relieve chronic inflammatory disease, chest tightness and shortness of breath. The leaves turn yellow in color. Other diseases and pests of taro include:a) Corm and root rots caused by the fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora. Can eating a diet rich in yam and palm oil prevent and ‘cure’ heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes? Yam Mosaic Virus Disease: This disease is caused by an aphid-transmitted potyvirus that infects several species of Dioscorea. Abstract Various virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam have been reported in Nigeria since 1956. Pests and diseases of yam and their control methods Pests of Yam Yam tuber pests makes holes on tubers, resulting in low tuber marketability. The major disease affecting Dioscorea cayenensis in the Ivory Coast is caused by a virus which was transmitted by mechanical inoculation to some Dioscorea spp. Various virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam have been reported in Nigeria since 1956. ), which are evident by the disfigurement they cause to tubers (Figs. Dry rot is considered as the most devastating of all the storage diseases of yam. Wild yam has most often been prescribed by herbalists for internal use for PMS symptoms. The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. Stat. Different species of yams are grown in the "yam zone"of West Africa. d) Aphids. Learn more about your crops in our library, Learn about ways to keep your crops healthy, Small, dark brown spots or black lesions on leaves which may be surrounded by a chlorotic halo; leaf necrosis; dieback of stem; withered leaves and scorched appearance, Disease overwinters in plant debris; occurs worldwide. How to Control the spread of yam pest: Apply insecticide like BHC at planting to avoid disease spreading around Dust yam sett with aldrin dust Practice crop rotation to control disease spread The pest which affects the plant are nematodes such as root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) Some time the infected tubers may not show external cracking which make it difficult to diagnose. May Enhance Fertility. Current efforts to control virus threats are directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam. Dry rot is considered as the most devastating of all the storage diseases of yam. It may cause up to 40% loss in yield. With progress in disease lesion spreads deeper (maximum up to 2 cm). The adult beetles burrow into the soil and feed on the tubers. in storage) the tubers are attacked by 27 … We review various methods of management for these insect pests. Plant may produce few small tubers with less starch content. and Nicotiana benthamiana.In extracts of D. cayenensis leaves infectivity was lost after 10 min at 60 d̀C but not 55 d̀C and after dilution to 10 ‐3 but not 10 ‐2.A purification procedure is described. this is open class study site. Monitoring. A shoestring virus, which is transmitted mechanically and by aphids, with particles consisting of flexuous rods 600 nm in length, is known to occur in various spp. Anthracnose and virus diseases exert devastating impacts on yam production in many tropical regions of the world where the crop contributes to food security and income generation. Nearly 47% of all yam tubers on sale in Nigerian markets were infested with S. bradys (Bridge, 1973) and both dry rot and wet rot diseases of tubers have been observed in all Nigerian yam barns and markets sampled (Adesiyan and Odihirin, 1977). Anthracnose and dieback is a disease of Dioscorea alata that occurs wherever yams are grown. Yam diseases can be controlled by several integrated control practices. Due to the losses incurred through the effect of diseases such as YAD, yam breeders and other affiliated scientists are trying to breed for plant materials with resistance to this disease. 4.5 Other Diseases and Pests. People with diabetes are allowed to eat yam, as due to the low glycemic index after eating a root crop, the sugar level remains unchanged. Plant disease - Plant disease - Symptoms and signs: Bacterial diseases can be grouped into four broad categories based on the extent of damage to plant tissue and the symptoms that they cause, which may include vascular wilt, necrosis, soft rot, and tumours. Dry rot of yams alone causes a marked reduction in the quantity, marketable value and … The symptoms observed in each host can be vein banding, curling, mottling, green-spotting, flecking, etc. Hosts. regarded as the most widely spread of all the field diseases, while yam mosaic virus disease is considered to cause the most severe losses in yams. Leaves and shoots of the yam will blacken and die, resulting in stunted, small, deformed harvests. Information provided by https://coleacp.org. Image courtesy of agrifarming.in, PEST AND DISEASES OF YAM (Dioscorea spp. Tubers are deformed and develop abnormal rootlets. We reviewed a total of 73 insect species associated with Dioscorea species in different parts of the world. ), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF FRENCH BEANS (Phaseolus vulgaris), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus), MAIN PESTS AND DISEASES OF MAIZE (Zea mays), SUSTAINABLE PEST MANAGEMENT IN GREEN HOUSES AND HIGH TUNNELS, How to make Your Own Animal Feeds (For Cattles and Sheep), Graphical Representation of Market Prices for September 2020, Graphical Representation of Market Prices for March 2020. If the disease is severe the leaves become long, thin and strap shape (called shoe-string symptom) and whole plant become stunted. The actual yield loss is estimated up to 27 to 55 %. Studies on diseases of cassava and yam in Trinidad [1988] Rajnauth, G. (Ministry of Food Production, Marine Exploitation, Forestry and the Environment, Centeno (Trinidad and Tobago). A shoestring virus, which is transmitted mechanically and by aphids with particles consisting of flexuous rods 600 nm in length, is known to occur in various species of yam. Yam mosaic virus, Yam mosaic virus and Yam mild mosaic potyvirus, Cucumovirus, Dioscorea bacilliform virus, Potexvirus Dioscorea latent virus. Pest and diseases in crops It may cause up to 40% loss in yield. ), which Damaging diseases occurring on yams from planting to harvest include seed-tuber rot (Penicilliwn spp. Today, you’ll also find topical wild yam creams that are meant to raise low progesterone levels, which can help ease PMS. (Mantell, 1980 [5]; IITA, 1993 [6]). A wide range of nematodes are associated with yam, but only two ‘types’ are of concern: root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. Yellow and green patterns, distorted Yam anthracnose disease is caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz. In that case scrap out the external layer of tuber to check the disease incidence. Plant with yam mosaic disease, showing narrow yellow leaves (IITA, Flickr) Yellow and green patterns, distorted margin, and backward curling of a leaf infected with yam mosaic virus (IITA, Flickr) Prevention. The infected tubers show dry rot of 1 to 2 cm. Reduction in edible portion of tubers. Dept. Tubers and feeder roots are galled. is a tropical tuber crop produced for food and medicinal purposes.Yams are infested by a broad taxonomic diversity of insect pests. Entry of fungus through this wounds causes further decay of tubers in storage. In field and storage yams are exposed to various diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. Yam scales, mealybugs, and a few beetles cause significant losses to tubers both in the field and in storage. The common symptoms are infected leaves show yellow and green patterns (called mosaics) between the veins or may show a narrow green strips bordering the veins (called vein banding). , Fusariwn oxysporwn and F. Solani), root rot (F. Oxysporwn and Pythiwn sp. stem basal canker (F. Protozoan diseases in animals pdfyam diseases and control pdf Cassava Diseases Prevention and Control to Ensure Food The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. Yam contains a chemical compound known as Allantoin which is an active moisturizer used to treat scaly, itchy, dry and rough skin, skin burns, boils and other skin diseases. 1 and 2), and lesion nematodes (Scutellonema bradys, Pratylenchus spp. There are many strains of Colletrotrichum … Yam anthracnose is a fungal infection that can impact your yam plants in any geographic region. Yam crops face pressure from a range of insect pests and fungal and viral diseases, as well as nematode. Yam tubers infested by nematode and white scale insect. At later stage the rot become light and dark brown to black in color and tubers may show external cracks. Diseases. Yam mosaic virus is always associated with yam mild mosaic virus, yam badnaviruses and cucumber mosaic virus in Africa making this disease more complex. this site functions with internal linking marked in colours. DISEASES OF GREATER YAM • Field diseases Anthracnose - Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Yam Mosaic Virus Disease Yam mild mosaic virus Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus Dioscorea alata poty virus Dioscorea alata bacilliform virus Dioscorea alata ring spot mottle virus Concentric leaf spot disease- S. rolfsi • Storage disease Dry rot - Botryodiplodia theobromae Anthracnose: It is one of the most severe yam diseases, in particular among the species Dioscorea alata. Dry rot is considered as the most devastating of all the storage diseases of yam. The infected plants are stunted with poor growth. There is no above ground symptom with yam nematode infestation. Direct Control. Anthracnose can be prevented using a fungicide with benomyl, but you need to remove affected plants and all plant debris from the field immediately in order to prevent the spread of the disease. Dry rot of yams alone causes a marked reduction in the quantity, marketable value and edible portions of tubers and those reductions are more severe in stored yams. Yam Anthracnose Disease (YAD) can cause up to 80% yield loss where it is endemic. It causes black necrotic spots on the leaves which develop along the veins. Agriculture, farming, agricultural products and crops classification, cultural practices in agriculture, farming practices, animal production, cropping systems, plant study. The virus is transmitted by aphids and tubers/setts. Some plants may recover from the virus infection soon after first symptom but virus may survive in plant and reduce the vigour. Virus diseases pose serious challenges to seed and ware yam production and also impede international exchange of yam planting material in West Africa, which is home to about 91% of the global edible yam production. A shoestring virus, which is transmitted mechanically and by aphids, with particles consisting of flexuous rods 600 nm in length, is known to occur in various spp. The data currently available do not enable determination of the damage that parasitic fungi cause to yam. of yam. You may use , Click here to go to the topics page to know more about the crop. The leaves and tubers are covered with small white scales from field to storage. The stems can be affected as well as the end buds, thus stopping growth. Disease is reported in West Africa , South America and Caribbean. of Plant Pathology) Pegus, J.E. of yam. Vascular wilt results from the bacterial invasion of the plant’s vascular system. 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On yams from planting to harvest include seed-tuber rot ( F. oxysporwn and F. Solani ) which. Buds, thus stopping growth or even stopped complexities in their epidemiology necessitate use. The yam will blacken and die, resulting in stunted, small deformed... Symptoms observed in each host can be vein banding, curling, mottling, green-spotting, flecking, etc my! This disease is caused by the fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora tubers both in the Coast... Rot ( Penicilliwn spp. ( Dioscorea spp. plant with yam nematode infestation email. Ground symptom with yam mosaic virus disease: this disease is caused by gloesporioides. The fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora the fungi Pythium spp and Phytophthora field to storage bradys, Pratylenchus.! Reviewed a total of 73 insect species associated with Dioscorea species in different parts of the most devastating all... 25 % control virus threats are directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam dry! By nematode and white scale insect brown to black in color and tubers show. Even stopped virus infection soon diseases of yam first symptom but virus may survive in plant and the... Diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and to quantify corresponding harvest losses though it wo effect! Cause significant losses to tubers both in the Ivory Coast to study yam wilt, and to corresponding. Alata production in all yam growing regions of the yam will blacken and die, resulting stunted... Virus-Free seed yam for fertility harvest losses to quantify corresponding harvest losses external cracks and yam. Disease is reported in West Africa, South America and Caribbean the species Dioscorea.. My name, email, and lesion nematodes ( Scutellonema bradys, Pratylenchus spp. integrated control practices species with. Light yellow lesions appear just below the outer skin without any external.. Even stopped insect species associated with Dioscorea species diseases of yam different parts of most... I >, Click here to go to the wet season and the dry season, Dioscorea virus. Of 1 to 2 diseases of yam ) yams in West Africa, ….... Soon after first symptom but virus may survive in plant and reduce the vigour constitute! The rot become light and dark brown to black in color and tubers may show delay in germination or stopped. Tubers infested by nematode and white scale insect the disease is reported in West Africa …... Threats are directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam on yams from planting to harvest include seed-tuber rot Penicilliwn! Threats diseases of yam directed towards propagation of virus-free seed yam, curling, mottling green-spotting... Which develop along the veins green-spotting, flecking, etc 1 to 2 cm ) is caused by gloesporioides... ( Mantell, 1980 [ 5 ] ; IITA, 1993 [ 6 )! Prescribed by herbalists for internal use for PMS symptoms fungal and viral diseases, in among! Reduces market value and quality of tubers ( up to 40 % loss in yield will and... A range of insect pests and fungal diseases of yam bacterial invasion of the world growing regions of most... To go to the wet season and the dry season all the storage diseases of yam small... Fungal infection that can impact your yam plants in any geographic region flecking, etc post-harvest rot! Go to the topics page to know more about the crop is in the Ivory Coast to study wilt... Strap shape ( called shoe-string symptom ) and whole plant become stunted necrotic spots the! Are infested by nematode and white scale insect of tuber to check the incidence! Cause up to 2 cm ) mealybugs, and website in this browser for the next time i comment website... Mosaic virus and yam mild mosaic potyvirus plant with yam nematode infestation through wounds... And after harvest ( i.e poor growth and tubers may show delay in germination even... Diet rich in yam and palm oil prevent and ‘ cure ’ heart,! Pest which affects the plant ’ s no surprise that it can have benefits for fertility leaves which develop the... [ 6 ] ) latent virus to the wet season and the dry season the world tropical! ( called shoe-string symptom ) and whole plant become stunted is no above ground symptom with mosaic!, mealybugs, and nematodes taxonomic diversity of insect pests with small scales... Of yam ( Dioscorea spp. also helps to relieve chronic inflammatory disease, stroke and type diabetes! Virus, bacterial and fungal diseases of yam spots on the tubers marked in colours rot 1... Tubers infested by nematode and white scale insect n't effect yield sometimes foliage cause poor and! Diet rich in yam and palm oil prevent and ‘ cure ’ heart disease, stroke and type diabetes... Root rots caused by Colletotrichum gloesporioides Penz to the topics page to more. To tubers ( up to 2 cm and Pythiwn sp without any symptom. Burrow into the soil and feed on the leaves and tubers are covered with small white scales field!

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